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During the summer months, the Gulf of Mexico will be five or more degrees warmer than the Atlantic Ocean. [49], There are 27,000 abandoned oil and gas wells beneath the Gulf. The Gulf of Mexico is somewhat shallow, along the coastal continental shelf areas, and has an average depth of 1,615m. As the . By Most Gulf beaches are located along a string of sandy barrier islands created by wave-washed quartz sand. New York: Liveright Publishing Corp. p. 416. 2. The entire basin is about 600,000 square miles (1.5 million sq km). The only thing that differs with the time of day is air temperature. . During the Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous, the basin occupied by the Gulf of Mexico experienced a period of cooling and subsidence of the crust underlying it. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Gulf waters are warm, shallow, and often calm. It's not the hurricane season and not so many tropical disturbances as the norther hemisphere winter is the quiet time in the Caribbean on the whole. Many cruise lines -- including .css-hghiur{transition-property:var(--chakra-transition-property-common);transition-duration:var(--chakra-transition-duration-fast);transition-timing-function:var(--chakra-transition-easing-ease-out);-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;outline:2px solid transparent;outline-offset:2px;font-weight:var(--chakra-fontWeights-medium);border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:dotted;cursor:pointer;color:var(--chakra-colors-blue-base);border-color:var(--chakra-colors-blue-base);}.css-hghiur:focus-visible,.css-hghiur[data-focus-visible]{box-shadow:var(--chakra-shadows-outline);}.css-hghiur:hover,.css-hghiur[data-hover]{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;border-bottom-width:1px;border-bottom-style:solid;}Carnival, Royal Caribbean and Norwegian -- have multiple ships sailing to the Caribbean out of Florida and the Gulf States throughout hurricane season (though the vessels will make itinerary changes to shy away from the biggest storms). This proportion, however, varies markedly during the year in coastal waters, particularly near the outflow of the broad delta region of the Mississippi River. Region: Gulf Coast. Yes, cruise ships are designed to handle rough seas. What are the physical state of oxygen at room temperature? The various rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico drain a land area roughly double that of the gulf, and the salinity of the gulf is subject to wide variations. It's not unusual to see a trip costing 50% less than a comparable trip during the summer. Emily Kask for The New York Times. The water on the East Coast of Florida gets nicer as you travel south. National Geophysical Data Center, 1999. The gulfs greatest east-west and north-south extents are approximately 1,100 and 800 miles (1,800 and 1,300 km), respectively, and it covers an area of some 600,000 square miles (1,550,000 square km). Started October 12, 2018, Copyright 19952023 The Independent Traveler, Inc. Water from the Caribbean enters through the Yucatn Channel, the floor of which forms a sill (submarine ridge between basins) at about 1 mile (1.6 km) beneath the surface, and flows out in a clockwise direction via the Straits of Florida. Because it is warmer than the surrounding water (65F or 18C compared to 39F or 4C), animals are attracted to it, but cannot survive once they enter it. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. So if you want to enjoy a family day of deep-sea fishing off the coast of Destin, August is fantastic. Thanks for any help. As part of the project educational outreach Nautilus Productions in partnership with BOEM, Texas A&M University, the Florida Public Archaeology Network[33] and Veolia Environmental produced a one-hour HD documentary[34] about the project, short videos for public viewing and provided video updates during the expedition. Playa Balandra in La Paz. [42] In Congressional testimony, Dr. Jonathan Coddington, associate director of Research and Collections at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, provides a detailed overview of the Gulf collections and their sources which Museum staff have made available on an online map. On the shelf and on the slope that dips downward to the abyssal plain, buried salt domes occur at various depths; economically important deposits of oil and natural gas are associated with them. Biloxi is a great place to swim on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. [4] The Gulf of Mexico basin is roughly oval in shape and is approximately 810 nautical miles (1,500km; 930mi) wide. You can't guarantee the seas with Mother Nature, but please keep in mind that the ships are so large now with huge stabilizers, etc. If their predictions come to pass, the Gulf Coast could see two landfalls within 24 hours of one another. Re: Looking for warmest calmest waters on gulf coast for child. When does hurricane season occur in the Gulf of Mexico? We also enjoy spending 3 - 4 nights in PR after the cruise. One of the most known beaches in Mexico, Cancun Beach is 14 miles long and features pristine white sand and crystal-clear waters. The Gulf Stream, a warm Atlantic Ocean current and one of the strongest ocean currents known, originates in the gulf, as a continuation of the Caribbean Current-Yucatn Current-Loop Current system. Because of its narrow connection to the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf experiences very small tidal ranges. Arctic Ocean The five coastal states on the Gulf of Mexico - Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas - all have rigs-to-reefs programmes and have converted more than 500 oil and gas platforms . Rosel E. P.. Corkeron P.. Engleby L.. Epperson D.. Mullin D. K.. Soldevilla S. M.. Taylor L. B.. 2016. In June 1979, the Ixtoc I oil platform in the Bay of Campeche suffered a blowout leading to a catastrophic explosion, which resulted in a massive oil spill that continued for nine months before the well was finally capped. Corrections? Photo Credit: Trying to decide on a western itinerary that goes more into the gulf of Mexico or eastern that is more in the Caribbean/ Atlantic. Amer.) When you're not splashing in the gentle waves or strolling the sand here, head out to spot dolphins during a cruise with Sunshine Scenic Tours or rent a standup paddleboard from one of the many . The sea condtions can never be predicted. . This has especially been plaguing the southwest and southern Florida coast, from the Florida Keys to north of Pasco County, Florida. Impacted Itineraries: world cruises, Africa cruises. Both seasonal and annual variations occur in these loop currents. On March 13, 2009, the CLCS accepted Mexico's arguments for extending its continental shelf up to 350 nautical miles (650km; 400mi) into the Western Polygon. The Gulf of Mexico is known for beautiful white-sand beaches and exciting offshore fishing. Florida's gulf coast isn't the only place to find clear ocean waters. Major Gulfs The Gulf of Mexico, bordered by the United States, Mexico, and the island nation of Cuba, is the world's largest gulf. There is also a lighthouse close to the beach which offers spectacular views of the coastline from the cliffs. The bigger your ship, the less you'll feel the waves. I think once she gets passed the first time she will be fine and won't want to stop. The deepest point is in the Mexico Basin (Sigsbee Deep), which is 17,070 feet (5,203 metres) below sea level. Contents show. Columbus is purported to have followed the coastal land mass of Central America before returning to the Atlantic Ocean via the Straits of Florida between Florida and Cuba. Video footage from the ROV was an integral part of this outreach and used extensively in the Mystery Mardi Gras Shipwreck documentary.[35]. An archaeological survey of the seafloor before the construction of a natural gas pipeline led to the discoveries by C & C Marine archaeologists Robert A. A visit to Mexico is a popular choice for many reasons. On January 25, 1699, Iberville reached Santa Rosa Island in front of Pensacola founded by the Spanish; he sailed from there to Mobile Bay and explored Massacre Island, later renamed Dauphin Island. The ocean at Miami remains the country's hottest, outside of tropical islands, throughout December, January and February. The thickness of the isothermal layer (a surface layer of water of constant temperature) varies from about 3 to more than 500 feet (1 to more than 150 metres), depending on seasonal and local conditions as well as on location. An October 2007 study of the Atlantic croaker found a disproportioned sex ratio of 61% males to 39% females in hypoxic Gulf sites. Mexico and United States: Treaty to resolve pending boundary differences and maintain the Rio Grande and Colorado River as the international boundary, of November 23, 1970; Treaty on maritime boundaries between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean), of May 4, 1978, and Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the United Mexican States on the delimitation of the continental shelf in the Western Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles (370km; 230mi), of June 9, 2000. Yes! The Gulf water temperature dips into the lower 60s or even upper 50s at this time, but has a moderating effect on the cold ravages of winter. That's the only time we've experienced heavier movement on the ships in normal, calm weather. jellybeana, your mom is about my mom's age and we treasure the memories from our seven night cruise. Such as. LauraS Set on 20 acres, the luxury resort has numerous pools peppered throughout the property, as well as four restaurants, and a vast stretch of beach - though because of its location, it is not safe for swimming. In Mexico, Cozumel is one of the best destinations for diving and snorkeling. Rosewood Mayakoba. Particularly during the Cenozoic, a time of relative stability for the Gulf's coastal zones,[16] thick clastic wedges built out the continental shelf along the northwestern and northern margins of the Gulf of Mexico. Do take a larger ship nd not one of the smaller ships that run the 3-day Bahamas route as they are much less stable in open water. In latitudes 15 to 30 N, the North Atlantic is characterized by prevailing high pressure with an attendant lack of intense storms and severe weather. The Gulf of Mexico is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Straits of Florida, between Cuba and the U.S. state of Florida. The only problem is she is deathly afraid of getting sea sick. The country is estimated to have about 500 beaches, not including endless wild shorelines and private lands. Can't guarantee smooth seas anywhere, or any season. He arrived in time to greet Garca de Escalante Alvarado (a nephew of Pedro de Alvarado), commander of the salvage operation, when Alvarado arrived by sea on July 22, 1554. Take your favorite seasickness remedies and look at it as part of the experience. A Mediterranean cruise rarely experiences significant seas. A sleepy beach town (accessible only by boat) about an hour south of Puerto Vallarta. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. 3. Since 1979, the specimens have been deposited in the national collections of the National Museum of Natural History.[43]. Sailing from San Juan is typically smooth, as you are already in the Caribbean vs. departing from Florida where the waters can be rougher. A number of rivers empty into the gulf, most notably the Mississippi River and the Rio Grande in the northern gulf, and the Grijalva and Usumacinta rivers in the southern gulf. With many people not looking to travel between these two major holidays, cruise lines slash fares. The major environmental threats to the Gulf are agricultural runoff and oil drilling. Sulfur is extracted from wells drilled on the continental shelf off Louisiana. A difference isn't discernable between the two with the same good conditions present. The Gulf: the Making of an American Sea. During the Late Jurassic, continued rifting widened the Gulf of Mexico and progressed to the point that sea-floor spreading and formation of oceanic crust occurred. But temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico also start rising sooner in late winter. The only sure thing would be a river cruise or perhaps the Staten Island ferry (great price for a short cruise). Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Started June 21, 2021, By On December 11, 1526, Charles V granted Pnfilo de Narvez a license to claim what is now the Gulf Coast of the United States, known as the Narvez expedition. The Gulf of Mexico is bordered by 1,680 miles of US coastline. Impacted Itineraries: China, Japan, the Philippines and Korea. The equatorial part of the ocean is called as doldrum. Pros: The period between Thanksgiving and Christmas is one of the absolute cheapest times to sail. This name was given by Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer who discovered it. Second, as rifting progressed through Early and Middle Jurassic times, the continental crust was stretched and thinned. Of particular note are the often-devastating hurricanes (tropical cyclones) that strike the region nearly every year. The first oil well was drilled in the Gulf in 1938. Earthquakes may be caused by interactions between sediment loading on the sea floor and adjustment by the crust.[28]. Since this would extend Mexico's continental shelf well into territory claimed by the United States, however, Mexico and the U.S. would need to enter a bilateral agreement based on international law that delimits their respective claims. Florida's Space Coast Beaches with Clear Waters. Snapper, redfish, tuna, sailfish, and mahi-mahi are best caught during this season. Eakins, 2009. Impacted Itineraries: Bermuda, Bahamas, Eastern Caribbean, Canada/New England. San Diego to Vancouver. The abyssal plain, which forms the floor of the gulf, consists of a large triangular area near the centre, bounded by abrupt fault scarps toward Florida and the Yucatn Peninsula and by more gentle slopes to the north and west. You will be able to leave a comment after signing in, By As you get further south you can experience rougher evenings but it really depends so much on the prevailing weather. Since that time thousands of wells have followed. Warm water is heated by the Gulf Stream, a warm air current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico. Omissions? Emeritus Professor of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station. [50] Although initial reports indicated that relatively little oil had leaked, by April 24, it was claimed by BP that approximately 1,000 barrels (160m3) of oil per day were issuing from the wellhead, about 1-mile (1.6km) below the surface on the ocean floor. I was suggesting a 7 nighter from San Juan that would do some of the Saint islands and go as far as Barbados. Since the seas are usually calm, this is also a great time to take kids out for their first trips out or to schedule deep sea fishing party boat charters. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. Relax and float away any and all worries in the salty sea. NO body of water is immune to roughness.even lakes can sink a ship!!!! The best time to fish the Gulf of Mexico is between April and September in the coastal waters of Mexico, Texas, Cuba, Florida, and Louisiana. During this time, meteorologic and oceanographic conditions are conducive for hurricanes to develop anywhere in the gulf. Over 40 species of sharks live in the Gulf of Mexico. Cancun Beach. The subsidence was the result of a combination of crustal stretching, cooling, and loading. EMPLOYMENT '16-'19: Indiana University; EMPLOYMENT '14-'15: University of California. Most Gulf beaches are located along a string of sandy barrier islands created by wave-washed quartz sand. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Straits of Florida, running between the peninsula of Florida and the island of Cuba, and to the Caribbean Sea by the Yucatn Channel, which runs between the Yucatn Peninsula and Cuba. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. The Gulf of Mexico is a rich reservoir of natural gas and oil. Rough Waters: Not many cruise lines sail to Africa, but if your itinerary includes South African destinations, watch out! [57], On May 12, 2016, a release of oil from subsea infrastructure on Shell's Brutus oil rig released 2,100 barrels of oil. As a result, the expedition of Tristn de Luna y Arellano was sent and landed at Pensacola Bay on August 15, 1559. Drake Passage/Cape Horn, Chile: This is one place that even dyed-on-the-wool cruise fans . She has jokingly said she has the xanax ready so she is a good sport. If you've booked a transatlantic cruise (especially in the cooler months) or a transpacific cruise (including those to Hawaii), you may encounter some bumps. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary". Perhaps a Southern Carib. - Gulf of Mexico or eastern side of Caribbean? The first beach on the list, Playa Norte, has clear waters and shining white sand. 1/19. [27], The Gulf is considered aseismic; however, mild tremors have been recorded throughout history (usually 5.0 or less on the Richter magnitude scale). You can also use drifting or bottom . The only sure thing would be a river cruise or perhaps the Staten Island ferry (great price for a short cruise). [6], The International Hydrographic Organization defines the southeast limit of the Gulf of Mexico as:[7]. The South China Sea and East Indies, eastern Mediterranean, Black Sea, North Sea, and British Isles are the most dangerous seas in the world, with the greatest number of shipping accidents in the last 15 years, according to a report released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Cancun Beach. Brings Little Relief. These high-pressure areas are part of a globe-encircling belt in which air from the westerlies to the north and from the tropics to the south sinks about 900 feet (275 metres) per day and is warmed by compression, so that the weather there is . The Gulf of Mexico is, however, unusually flat, with a gradient of only about 1 foot (0.3 meters) in every 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). The deciding factor is which will have the calmer water, not the itinerary stops. [32] Mexico sought an extension of its continental shelf in the Western Polygon based on international law, UNCLOS, and bilateral treaties with the United States, in accordance with Mexico's domestic legislation. Phone +1 251-968-2040. [8][14][15], Later, loading of the crust within the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent coastal plain by the accumulation of kilometers of sediments during the rest of the Mesozoic and all of the Cenozoic further depressed the underlying crust to its current position about 1020km (6.212.4mi) below sea level. She said she would like to try but not for a long cruise which I like, but a short 2-3 night. Oyster shells obtained from the shallow waters are used in the chemical industry as a source of calcium carbonate and also provide material for building roads. Hurricanes spawned in the North Atlantic may also move through the gulf at that time, often picking up strength. Encounter a storm in the South China Sea or other Asian waters, and you could find an unpleasant ride, not to mention some skipped ports. First, there was a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic phase of rifting during which rift valleys formed and filled with continental red beds. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [54] Coast Guard Rear Adm. Sally Brice O'Hare stated that the US government will be "employing booms, skimmers, chemical dispersants and controlled burns" to combat the oil spill. I have heard that more people die in the bathtub than on cruise ships.;). The Bay of Biscay, off the west coast of France and north of Spain, and the North Sea can also be rough, but are calmer in the summertime. We've been on several western, eastern, and southern Carib cruises and the rougher water has always been in the more open waters of the southern as we made our way south to the ABC islands. In 1973 the United States Environmental Protection Agency prohibited the dumping of undiluted chemical waste by manufacturing interests into the Gulf and the military confessed to similar behavior in waters off Horn Island. Impacted Itineraries: Transatlantic, transpacific, Hawaii, Canada and New England, world cruises. This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. [46] It was 8,776 square miles (22,730km2) in 2017, the largest ever recorded. To date, BP's cost for the clean-up, environmental and economic damages and penalties has reached $54bn. if you and your mother would be interested in seeing the world famous Butchart Gardens there. [12] The rifting was associated with zones of weakness within Pangea, including sutures where the Laurentia, South American, and African plates collided to create it. [36] The wreck's precise location was discovered during the C & C Marine survey that located the U-166. The Gulf of Mexico (Tampa -Key West- Cozumel) is pretty calm from December to June. The land that forms the gulf's coast, including many long, narrow barrier islands, is almost uniformly low-lying and is characterized by marshes and swamps as well as stretches of sandy beach. It is connected to part of the Atlantic Ocean through the Florida Straits between the U.S. and Cuba, and with the Caribbean Sea via the Yucatn Channel between Mexico and Cuba. This was the first European encounter with an advanced civilization in the Americas, with solidly built buildings and a complex social organization which they recognized as being comparable to those of the Old World; they also had reason to expect that this new land would have gold. Litigation is ongoing. 19952023, The Independent Traveler, Inc. Hurricane Harvey: A Look Back at the Storm, Sail Here, Not There: Avoiding Overtourism in Cruise Ports, 8 Reasons to Cruise on a Refurbished Ship, 10 Best Cruise Destinations for Hot Air Balloon Rides. Individual waves may be more than twice the . the Pacific Ocean Davis, Jack E. (2018). I hope the two of you enjoy a wonderful cruise (and more to come) together! This loss, in combination with other ship disasters around the Gulf of Mexico, gave rise to a plan for establishing a settlement on the northern Gulf Coast to protect shipping and more quickly rescue castaways. The season has gotten off to an unusually calm start, but the absence of storms has . There are frequent "red tide" algae blooms[44] that kill fish and marine mammals and cause respiratory problems in humans and some domestic animals when the blooms reach close to shore. A line joining Cape Catoche Light (2137N 8704W / 21.617N 87.067W / 21.617; -87.067) with the Light on Cape San Antonio in Cuba, through this island to the meridian of 83W and to the Northward along this meridian to the latitude of the South point of the Dry Tortugas (2435'N), along this parallel Eastward to Rebecca Shoal (8235'W) thence through the shoals and Florida Keys to the mainland at the eastern end of Florida Bay and all the narrow waters between the Dry Tortugas and the mainland being considered to be within the Gulf. 4. This leak created a visible 2 by 13 miles (3.2 by 20.9km) oil slick in the sea about 97 miles (156km) south of Port Fourchon, Louisiana, according to the U.S. Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement. So for a first cruise you may want to choose between the western and eastern. I wouldn't think there would be much between the two. Sea surface temperatures in February vary between 64 F (18 C) in the northern gulf and 76 F (24 C) off the Yucatn coast. Families with kids will love the calm waters to swim and splash. The Gulf of Mexico is known for beautiful white-sand beaches and exciting offshore fishing. At the time of the photograph, The Galveston Airport, Scholes Field, reported calm winds. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The shipwreck, whose real identity remains a mystery, lay forgotten at the bottom of the sea until it was discovered in 2002 by an oilfield inspection crew working for the Okeanos Gas Gathering Company (OGGC). This thinning created a broad zone of transitional crust, which displays modest and uneven thinning with block faulting, and a broad zone of uniformly thinned transitional crust, which is half the typical 40-kilometer (25mi) thickness of normal continental crust. Cozumel. During the winter there are fronts coming down from up north and during the summer always the threat of a hurricane. In 1510, he accompanied Diego Velzquez de Cullar, an aide of the governor of Hispaniola, in his expedition to conquer Cuba. If you are really set on Mexico look into Akumal. The warm water then moves north, where it forces cooler water to sink and move south. Avoid: The season lasts from June through the end of November, but most storms occur during . In 1697, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville sailed for France and was chosen by the Minister of Marine to lead an expedition to rediscover the mouth of the Mississippi River and to colonize Louisiana which the English coveted. Any suggestions? just do it! [39], Various biota include chemosynthetic communities near cold seeps and non chemosynthetic communities such as bacteria and other micro benthos, meiofauna, macrofauna, and megafauna (larger organisms such as crabs, sea pens, crinoids, demersal fish, cetaceans, and the extinct Caribbean monk seal) are living in the Gulf of Mexico. A caribbean cruise with port stops each day would be your best bet (as suggested by someone else). Carnival has 3 & 4 day sailings from Long Beach, CA and Royal Caribbean's 'Radiance of the Seas' offers a 5 night on 5/3/10 r.t. from San Diego. In this article, we will discuss the best times and seasons to fish in the Gulf of Mexico. evan peters jeffrey dahmer & Academic Background; department of public works massachusetts. 6. Have her take Bonine for sea sickness and have a good time. After both platforms were submerged, the formation of carbonates and evaporites has characterized the geologic history of these two stable areas. The North Atlantic by northern Canada has its fair share of high seas, as well. My theory on what makes these waters so special is the area's proximity to the Gulf Stream ocean current. [26] River drainage and atmospheric fallout from industrial coastal cities also provide nutrients to the coastal zone. It hosts the city's favorite beach at its southern end, making it ideal for those activities along with paddling, fishing and picnicking. height of the highest 1/3 of the waves. Natural gas wasn't far behind, comprising 47 percent of the U.S. totals. It is also called the peaceful sea or Tepre Pacificum in Latin. Impacted Itineraries: One-way Alaska sailings. The Gulf of Mexico (Spanish: Golfo de Mxico) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. By clicking Accept All, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. . Former Director, Marine Policy Center, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, 198694. Updates? Cancun Beach, Riviera Maya. In 1518 Velzquez put him in command of an expedition to explore and secure the interior of Mexico for colonization. There is extreme variability in both current direction and speed on the continental shelf and in the coastal waters of the gulf, where currents are subjected to seasonal and annual variations caused not only by major circulation patterns but also by changes in the prevailing wind direction. The waters of the Pacific Ocean comprise the worlds largest heat reservoir, by far, and it is the warmest ocean, overall, of the worlds five oceans. Credit Weather-wise, August is generally a calm month, and the waters in the Gulf lay down like glass. Both of these channels are about 100 miles (160 km) wide. It was created by the collision of continental plates that formed Pangea. The samples were collected for years by the former Minerals Management Service (renamed the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement) to help predict the potential impacts of future oil/gas explorations. Rest assured the cruise line and the Captain will keep you safe and out of harms way. Routes: Caribbean cruises are divided into eastern, western, and southern itineraries. The only sure thing would be a river cruise - or perhaps the Staten Island ferry (great price for a short cruise). The top destination in the Florida Keys is also . 14 Miramar Beach. It does not store any personal data. The deciding factor is which will have the calmer water, not the itinerary stops. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. Started August 27, 2021, By In July 2015 BP reached an $18.7bn settlement with the US government, the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, as well as 400 local authorities. [45], The Gulf contains a hypoxic dead zone that runs eastwest along the Texas-Louisiana coastline. [48], Microplastics within semi-enclosed seas like the Gulf have been reported in high concentrations and the Gulf's first such study estimated concentrations that rival the highest globally reported. firefighter adjectives,